The effect of dressing with different antiseptic agents on reproductive parameters in rats undergoing abdominal incision
Antiseptic agents used in the postoperative period affect the functions of many tissues in the body, including the testicles. In this study, the effect of dressings administered with different antiseptic agents on testicular functions in rats that underwent abdominal incisions was investigated. A total of 48 Sprague-Dawley rats, were used in the study. Each of the rats in the study group underwent a 4 cm-long skin and muscle operation. The incision was then stitched immediately. Then, antiseptics, hemp seed oil, hemp leaf oil, and cannabidiol oil were administered to the rats for 10 days to provide antisepsis. Rats were sacrificed 24 hours after the last administration, and testicular tissues were removed. Testicular tissues were used for histopathological examination and biochemical analysis, while epididymal tissue was used for sperm analysis. According to the results, the MDA level in the antiseptic-administered group was higher than in the other experimental groups (p<0.05). Levels of SOD, CAT activities, and GSH content were found to be lower in the antiseptic group than in the antiseptic administered group (p<0.05). In testicular histology, the SEED group had the highest Johnsen score, and the antiseptic group had the lowest score (p<0.05). While JAK, P-JAK2, STAT3, PSTAT3, and NF-κB were generally higher in the antiseptic group compared to the other groups, they were lower in the SEED group. Additionally, sperm total motility rate and epididymal sperm density were highest in the SEED group (p<0.05). As a result, it was determined that cannabidiol seed oil had a good effect on testicular histology and sperm quality in male rats during the wound healing process.
Combined antimicrobial action of streptomycin and terpenes against atypical mycobacteria isolated from fish
The aim of this study was to investigate the antimycobacterial activity of 39 free terpenes and their activity in combination with streptomycin. Antimicrobial activity was first evaluated by screening 39 free terpenes at concentrations from 1.56 to 400 µg/mL. None of them exhibited positive effects against any of the nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) strains tested. However, six of the 39 terpenes (isoeugenol, nerol, (+)-α-terpineol, (1R)-(−)-myrtenol, (+)-terpinen-4-ol, and eugenol) were shown to enhance the activity of streptomycin against the NTM strains isolated from diseased ornamental fish.
First detection of Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma ovis in Rhipicephalus bursa ticks collected from sheep, Türkiye
Anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis are important tick-borne rickettsial diseases of medical and veterinary importance that cause economic losses in livestock. In this study, the prevalence of Anaplasma ovis, Ehrlichia canis and Ehrlichia chaffeensis was investigated in ticks collected from sheep in various farms in Van province, which is located in the Eastern Anatolian Region of Türkiye. The ticks used in this study were collected by random sampling in 26 family farm business in 13 districts of Van province. A total of 688 ticks were collected from 88 sheep and 88 tick pools were created. All ticks identified morphologically as Rhipicephalus bursa. Phylogenetic analysis of Chaperonin and 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed A. ovis, E. canis and E. chaffeensis in this study. Of the 88 tick pool tested, 28.41% (25/88) were positive for at least one pathogen. Anaplasma DNA was detected in five of the 88 pools (5.68%), E. canis DNA was detected in 19 of the 88 pools (21.59%), and E. chaffeensis DNA was detected in one of the 88 pools (1.14%) of R. bursa ticks. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the presence of A. ovis, E. canis, and E. chaffeensis in R. bursa tick collected from sheep in Türkiye. Further studies are needed to investigate other co-infectetion in sheep in Türkiye.
Ohmic Heating Application with Different Electric Fields on Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in Protein-Enriched Milk
The aim of this study is to determine the effects of ohmic heating (OH) process with different electric field intensities on Listeria monocytogenes inactivation in protein-enriched milk. Protein powder was added at rates of 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% in 1.5% fat content milk, and then L. monocytogenes (ATCC 13932) strain was inoculated into the samples. The ohmic heating process was carried out in a laboratory-type pilot unit created using stainless steel electrodes, K-type thermocouple, datalogger and power supply providing AC current at 0-250 V, 10 A. The inoculated milk samples were heated up to 63°C by applying an electric field intensity of 10 V/cm and 20V/cm. Then, L.monocytogenes counts, pH, color measurement and hydroxymethylfurfurol levels were determined. OH applied with an electric field intensity of 10 V/cm caused an average decrease of 5 logs in L.monocytogenes level in the samples containing 2.5% protein and decreased below the detection limit (<1 log) at the 9th minute (p<0.05). Similarly, application of an electric field intensity of 20 V/cm in milk containing 2.5% and 5% protein caused L.monocytogenes level to decrease below the detection limit (<1 log) at the 2.5th minute (p<0.05). No change was observed in L* (brightness) values of the samples but it was determined that there was a slight increase in pH, a* (redness) and b* (yellowness) values compared to the control group. Thus, it has been observed that the inactivation of L. monocytogenes by OH depends on the duration of OH process, protein concentration in milk and applied voltage gradient.
Virulence properties of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from meat and meat contact surfaces in a slaughterhouse
Listeria monocytogenes is a ubiquitous microorganism that is isolated from a variety of sources such as soil, water, decaying vegetation, sewerage, animal feeds, silage, farm environments, and food-processing environments. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, serogroups, biofilm formation, virulence factor genes, and genetic relationships of L. monocytogenes strains isolated from beef meat and meat contact surfaces obtained from a slaughterhouse in Burdur, Turkey. In this study, a total of 179 beef meat and meat contact surface samples were analyzed for the presence of L. monocytogenes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Out of a total of 179 beef meat and meat contact surface samples, 83 (46.37%) were found to be contaminated with L. monocytogenes, with the highest incidence (53.01%) occurring in beef meat. In the present study, most of the isolated strains belonged to serogroup IIB and IVB (lineage I). Also, the L. monocytogenes strain contained monoA-B, prfA, plcA, plcB, mpl, hlyA, actA, gtcA, dltA, Fri, flaA, InlA, InlC, InlJ, and iap genes. Biofilm formation was not determined in the tested samples at pH 5.5 and different temperatures (4oC, 10oC, 25oC, and 37oC). However, strong biofilm formation was observed in 6.45% (2/31) of the strains at pH 7.0 after 48 h incubation at 37oC, and in 3.22% (1/31) of the starins at pH 7.0 after 48 h incubation both 4oC and 10oC. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) results showed that L. monocytogenes isolates were clonally related, and cross-contamination was present. In addition, PFGE results also revealed that AscI had more distinguishing power than the ApaI restriction enzyme. These results indicate that L. monocytogenes detected from meat and meat contact surfaces in the slaughterhouse pose a potential risk to public health.
Post-thaw quality of boar spermatozoa is affected by ejaculate fractions and extenders
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different extenders on post-thaw (PT) quality of sperm originated from the sperm-rich fraction (SRF) and post-sperm-rich fraction (PSRF) of boar ejaculate. Motility and velocity parameters, analyzed by the computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) system, and membrane integrity parameters were markedly higher in frozen-thawed (FT) spermatozoa of the SRF in either the Belstville Thawing Solution (BTS) or Androhep Plus (AHP) extender, irrespective of the post-thaw (PT) storage time. Furthermore, reduced cryo-survival was more marked in FT spermatozoa of the PSRF in either extender following storage for 60 min. It was found that the SRF-stored samples in the AHP extender for 60 min exhibited significantly higher percentages of spermatozoa with total motility, mitochondrial function and acrosome integrity than those stored in the BTS extender. The findings of this study confirm that components of the ejaculate fractions and extender have varying effects on the cryo-survival of boar spermatozoa.
Effect of form and concentration of ditary zinc+vitamin-E on blood biochemistry, and antioxidant stability of Japanese quail
The objective of the study was to compare the effects of organic (OZn) and inorganic (IZn) zinc, as well as vitamin E (Vit. E), at various doses on the blood biochemistry and antioxidant stability of Japanese quails. A total of 960 day old quail chicks were purchased from a hatchery at the Avian Research and Training (ART), Centre, Department of Poultry Production, University of Veterinary and Animal Science, Lahore-Pakistan. A completely randomised design was used to assign these chicks to 8 different dietary treatments. Each treatment group was further replicated 4 times with 30 chicks in each. The experimental groups included T1 (0 mg/kg OZn+0 mg/kg IZn +0 IU/kg Vit. E), T2 (25 mg/kg OZn +0 mg/kg IZn +0 IU/kg Vit. E), T3 (0 mg/kg OZn +15 mg/kg IZn +0 IU/kg Vit. E), T4 (0 mg/kg OZn +0 mg/kg IZn +12 IU/kg Vit. E), T5 (25 mg/kg OZn +15 mg/kg IZn +0 IU/kg Vit. E), T6 (25 mg/kg OZn +0 mg/kg IZn +12 IU/kg Vit. E), T7 (0 mg/kg OZn +15 mg/kg IZn +12 IU/kg Vit. E), T8 (25 mg/kg OZn +15 mg/kg IZn +12 IU/kg Vit. E). The findings revealed that group T8 had elevated serum total protein values, but that there was no difference in treatment response for any of the other measurements, such as serum glucose, albumin, cholesterol, or urea. Serum phosphorus levels were also greater in group T8 than in the other groups, whereas levels of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium did not differ between treatments. Data for antioxidant measures showed enhanced glutathione peroxidase values in group T8, followed by groups T6, T5, T7, and T1, T2, T3, T4. Superoxide dismutase values were greater in groups T2, T5, T6, T7, and T8 than in groups T1 and T4 (P<0.05), while serum samples from groups T2, T5, T6, and T8 exhibited greater levels of thiobarbituric acid than those from groups T3, T4, T7, and T1 (P<0.05). The birds in group T6 had the highest levels of lipid peroxidation, followed by groups T2, T5, T8, T3, and T1 (P<0.05). Birds in groups T5, T6, T8 had the highest antibody titres against Newcastle disease virus, followed by birds in groups T7, T2, T3, T4, and T1 (P<0.05). Together, these findings demonstrated that a diet containing 25 mg/kg OZn, 15 mg/kg IZn, and12 IU/kg Vit. E (T8) was better for serum biochemistry, antioxidant and immune systems.
Prepartum behaviors as early indicators for postpartum energy associated biomarkers status in Holstein dairy cows
Our main objective was to investigate the predictive value of prepartum behaviors such as total daily rumination (TDR), total daily activity (TDA), and dry matter intake (DMI) as early indicators to detect cows at risk for hyperketonemia (HYK), hypoglycemia (HYG) or high non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) status in the first (wk1) and second week (wk2) postpartum. In a case-control study, 64 Holstein cows were enrolled 3 weeks before the expected time of calving and monitored until 15 days in milk (DIM). Postpartum blood samples were taken at D3 and D6 for wk1 and at D12 and D15 for wk2 to measure beta-hydroxybutyrate, NEFA, and glucose concentration. Ear-mounted accelerometers were used to measure TDR and TDA. DMI and milk yield was obtained from farm records. Relationships between the average daily rate of change in prepartum TDR (ΔTDR), TDA (ΔTDA), and DMI (ΔDMI) with postpartum HYK, HYG, and NEFA status in wk1 and wk2 post-partum were evaluated using linear regression models. Models were adjusted for potential confounding variables and covariates retained in the final models were determined by backward selection. No evidence was found to support the premise that prepartum ΔTDR, ΔTDA, or ΔDMI predicted postpartum HYK, HYG, or NEFA status in wk1 or in wk2. Overall, prepartum ΔTDR, ΔTDA, and ΔDMI were not effective predictors of HYK, HYG, or NEFA status in the first 2 weeks postpartum.
Isolated rumen and omasum epithelia of indigenous buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) express menthol-mediated short circuit current via transient receptor potential (TRPV3 and TRPM6) channels
The transport of ammonia in the rumen epithelium of Holstein Friesian cattle has been shown to occur through transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, which are selective for cations and sensitive to menthol. This study aimed to investigate the functional expression of TRP channels in the rumen and omasal epithelia of indigenous buffalo. Rumen and omasum epithelia (n=8 each) were collected from adult indigenous buffalo (N=4) and subjected to molecular and electrophysiological analysis. Results showed that TRPV3 and TRPM6 were expressed in both the rumen and omasum epithelia. Electrophysiological experiments using Ussing chambers with isolated ruminal and omasal epithelia exposed to ammonium buffer revealed a menthol-sensitive short-circuit current (rumen > omasum). The study suggests that TRP channels are expressed in the rumen and omasum epithelia of buffalo and are sensitive to menthol, similar to Holstein-Friesian cattle. Further research on these channels could help mitigate ammonia release from livestock.
Investigation of the protective effect of chitosan against arsenic-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative damage in rat kidney tissue
Arsenic is an important metalloid that can cause poisoning in humans and domestic animals. Exposure to arsenic causes cell damage, increasing the production of reactive oxygen species. Chitosan is a biopolymer obtained by deacetylation of chitin with antioxidant and metal ion chelating properties. In this study, the protective effect of chitosan on arsenic-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative damage was investigated. 32 male Wistar-albino rats were divided into 4 groups of 8 rats each as control group (C), chitosan group (CS group), arsenic group (AS group), and arsenic+chitosan group (AS+CS group). The C group was given distilled water by oral gavage, the AS group was given 100 ppm/day Na-arsenite ad libitum with drinking water, the CS group was given 200 mg/kg/day chitosan dissolved in saline by oral gavage, the AS+CS group was given 100 ppm/day Na-arsenite ad libitum with drinking water and 200 mg/kg/day chitosan dissolved in saline by oral gavage for 30 days. At the end of the 30-day experimental period, 90 mg/kg ketamine was administered intraperitoneally to all rats, and blood samples and kidney tissues were collected. Urea, uric acid, creatinine, P, Mg, K, Ca, Na, Cystatin C (CYS-C), Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) and Kidney Injury Molecule 1 (KIM-1) levels were measured in serum samples. Malondialdehyde (MDA), Glutathione (GSH), Catalase (CAT) and Superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in the supernatant obtained from kidney tissue were analyzed by ELISA method. Compared with AS group, uric acid and creatinine levels of the AS+CS group were significantly decreased (p<0.001), urea, KIM-1, CYS-C, NGAL, and MDA levels were numerically decreased and CAT, GSH, and SOD levels were numerically increased (p>0.05). In conclusion, based on both biochemical and histopathological-immunohistochemical-immunofluorescence findings, it can be concluded that chitosan attenuates kidney injury and protects the kidney.