Articles in press

Expression and self-assembly of virus-like particles from porcine parvovirus and its application on antibodies detection


Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is a major causative agent in reproductive pig disease. The swine industry faces a significant economic and epizootic threat, thus finding a reliable, quick, and practical way to detect it is essential. In this investigation, the Escherichia coli (E. coli) expression system’s supernatant was used to express the soluble recombinant VP2 protein. As shown by electron microscopy (TEM), Western blot, and hemagglutination (HA) assays, the recombinant VP2 protein was successfully assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs) after being expressed and purified. These VLPs had a structure that was similar to that of real PPV viruses and also exhibited HA activity. These VLPs induced high levels of PPV-specific antibody titers in mice after immunization, indicating that the VLPs may be beneficial as potential candidate antigens. VLPs were used as the coating antigens for the VLP ELISA, and the PPV VLPs-based ELISA displayed a high sensitivity (99%), specificity (93.0%) and agreement rate (98.3%) compared to HI assay, and the agreement rate of this ELISA was 97.5% compared to a commercial ELISA kit. Within a plate, the coefficient of variation (CV) was 10%, and between ELISA plates, the CV was 15%. According to a cross-reactivity assay, the technique was PPV-specific in contrast to other viral illness sera. The PPV VLP I-ELISA test for PPV detection in pigs with an inactivated vaccine showed that the PPV-positive rate varied among different sample sources from 88.2 to 89.6%. Our results indicate that this ELISA technique was quick, accurate, and repeatable and may be used for extensive serological research on PPV antibodies in pigs.

Teriflunomide induces Foxp3 expression in CD8+ T cells while IL-27 and retinoic acid exert a synergistic effect on the induction of CD39 expression on these cells


The purpose of this study was to verify the possibility of pharmacological induction of Foxp3+CD25+CD8+ and Foxp3-CD103+CD8+ T regulatory cells ‘armed’ with immunosuppressive molecules, i.e. CD39 and IL-10. To achieve this purpose, stimulated and unstimulated murine lymphocytes were exposed to IL-27, teriflunomide (TER) and all trans retinoic acid (ATRA). The study found that: (a) IL-27 induced CD39 expression on Foxp3+CD25+CD8+ T cells and the ability of CD103+Foxp3-CD8+ T cells to produce IL-10 as well as increasing the absolute number of IL-10+CD103+Foxp3-CD8+ T cells; (b) TER induced Foxp3 expression in CD25+CD8+ T cells and CD103 expression on Foxp3-CD8+ T cells as well as increasing the absolute number of Foxp3+CD25+CD8+ T cells; (c) ATRA induced the capacity of Foxp3+CD25+CD8+ T cells to produce IL-10. The following desired interactions were demonstrated between IL-27 and ATRA: (a) a strong synergistic effect with respect to increasing CD39 expression and the ability to produce IL-10 by Foxp3+CD25+CD8+ T cells; (b) a synergistic effect with respect to increasing the absolute count of CD39+Foxp3+CD25+CD8+ T cells. The study revealed that TER abolished all these effects. Therefore, a combination of the tested agents did not induce the generation of Foxp3+CD25+CD8+ and Foxp3-CD103+CD8+ T cells characterized by extensive CD39 expression and IL-10 production. Thus, in the context of the pharmacological induction of IL-10+CD39+Foxp3+CD25+CD8+ and IL-10+CD103+Foxp3-CD8+ T cells, these findings strongly suggest that a combination of TER with IL-27 and/or ATRA does not provide any benefits over TER alone; moreover, such a combination may result in abolishing the desired effects exerted by IL-27 and/or ATRA.

Study of autonomic modulation by non-linear analysis of heart rate variability in different age groups and analysis of health status, disease and risk of death in dogs.

MartinelloRomãode GodoyMachadoTsunemiLourenço,

The symbolic analysis of heart rate variability (biomarker of cardiac autonomic homeostasis) is a nonlinear and effective tool for pattern extraction and classification in a series analysis, which implies the transformation of an original time series into symbols, represented by numbers. Autonomic heart rate control is influenced by different factors, and better indicators of heart rate variability are found in healthy young individuals than in older and sicker individuals. The aim of this study was to compare the indicators of heart rate variability among healthy dogs in different age groups and in health status using the nonlinear method of symbolic analysis to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of this method for the risk of death in dogs. An increase in cardiac sympathetic modulation was observed in puppies and dogs at risk of death, which was evidenced by a marked increase of 0 V% (without variation – associated with sympathetic modulation) and a decrease in patterns of 2 V% (two variations – associated with parasympathetic modulation), while the opposite was observed in young adult dogs with increased parasympathetic modulation. Elderly dogs showed a gradual decrease in parasympathetic activity, which tended to worsen with loss of health. It is concluded that the variables of symbolic analysis may be useful to evaluate autonomic modulation in dogs and assist in the differentiation between health states, advanced disease and death throughout the life cycle and have been shown to be indices with high specificity, sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy to help identify dogs at risk of death.

Effect of organic zinc supplementation on hematological, mineral, and metabolic profile in dairy cows in early lactation


The aim of the current trial was to evaluate the effect of organically chelated zinc – methionin (Zn-Met) supplementation (30mg Zn /kg DM TMR) on hematological, biochemical, and mineral profile of dairy cows in early lactation (1 – 90 d p.p.). Twenty dairy cows were randomly allocated to one of two dietary treatments in a randomized design. Animals in group C were treated as control (no zinc supplementation); whereas animals in group S were supplemented with organic Zn. Zn-Met supplementation had a significant effect on hematological parameters. White blood cell (WBC) counts 60 days p.p. and red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin concentration (HGB), hematocrit level (HCT) and platelet count (PLT) on calving day, 30th- and 60th- day p.p were significantly higher in cows fed Zn than in the control group. In calves from supplemented mothers, there was a significant increase in RBC (p≤0.001), HCT (p≤0.01) and MCV (p≤0.05). There was no difference in other parameters among the groups, except of the highly significant difference in Zn concentration in blood serum of the S-group during the entire experimental time. The results obtained confirm the beneficial effect on serum zinc level and hematological parameters with no negative effects of 30mg Zn/kg TMR addition on mineral and biochemical parameters.

Water-soluble expression of nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV-2 and immunogenicity analysis


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to be a major public health concern. Nucleocapsid (N) protein is the most abundant structural protein on SARS-CoV-2 virions and induces the production of antibodies at the early stage of infection. Large-scale preparation of N protein is essential for the development of immunoassays to detect antibodies and the control of virus transmission. In this study, water-soluble expression of N protein was obtained through inducing protein expression at 25 °C with 0.5 mM IPTG for 12 h. Western blot and ELISA showed that recombinant N protein could be recognized by sera collected from subjects immunized with inactivated vaccine. Four monoclonal antibodies namely 2B1B1, 4D3A3, 5G1F8, and 7C6F5 were produced. Antibody titers in ELISA reached more than 1.28×106.0. Moreover, all monoclonal antibodies could react specifically with N protein expressed by transfection of pcDNA3.1-N into BHK-21 cells in IPMA and IFA. The preparation of water-soluble N protein and its monoclonal antibodies laid the basis for the development of immunoassays for COVID-19 detection.

Evaluation of the clinical efficacy of racecadotril in the treatment of neonatal calves with infectious diarrhea


Racecadotril used as an antidiarrheal drug in humans and some animals such as dog inhibit peripheral enkephalinase, which degrades enkephalins and enkephalinase inhibition induces a selective increase in chloride absorption from the intestines. The material of study consisted of 46 calves with infectious diarrhea and 14 healthy calves and calves were in the age 2-20 days old. The calves were divided into eight groups; healthy calves (HG), healthy calves administered racecadotril (HRG), calves with E.coli-associated diarrhea (ECG), calves with E.coli-associated diarrhea administered racecadotril (ECRG), calves with bovine Rotavirus/Coronavirus-associated diarrhea (VG), calves with bovine Rotavirus/Coronavirus-associated diarrhea administered racecadotril (VRG), calves with C. parvum-associated diarrhea (CG) and calves with C. parvum-associated diarrhea administered racecadotril (CRG). Calves in racecadotril groups received oral racecadotril at the dose of 2.5 mg/kg twice a day for 3 days. A routine clinical examination of all calves was performed. Hemogram and blood gas measurements were made from the blood samples. Standard diarrhea treatment was applied to the HG, ECG, CG, and VG. Clinical score parameters such as appetite, feces quality, dehydration, standing, death and, some blood gas and hemogram parameters were evaluated to determine the clinical efficacy of racecadotril. Clinical score parameters were determined observationally. Blood gas measurements were performed with a blood gas analyzer. Hemogram was performed with an automated hematologic analyzer. Statistically significant differences were determined in the blood pH, bicarbonate, base deficit, lactate, and total leukocyte count in calves with diarrhea compared to healthy calves. After the treatments, these parameters were found to be within normal limits. At the end of treatment, 42 of the 46 diarrheal calves recovered, while 4 died. We found that racecadotril was effective in improving both clinical recovery and feces consistency in newborn calves with diarrhea caused by E. coli. As a result, it can be stated that racecadotril, which has an antisecretory effect, is beneficial in using in the treatment of bacterial diarrhea caused by such as E. coli.

Comparative Evaluation of Single and Combined Efficacy of Dipyridamole, Ketotifen and Quercetin on Cyclosporine induced Hepatorenal Toxicity


Cyclosporine is an immunosuppressive drug that is used to prevent tissue rejection in organ transplants and to treat autoimmune diseases such as psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. It has important toxic effects in many organs such as liver and kidney. The aim of the research was to determine and compare the effectiveness of the single and combined treatment of dipyridamole, which is vasodilator and antioxidant effect, ketotifen which is toll-like receptor-4 inhibitory and antioxidant effect, quercetin which is antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect in cyclosporine induced hepatorenal toxicity. Forty-eight Wistar Albino rats were divided into 7 groups. The research period was 21 days. The cyclosporine increased serum ALT and AST levels, on the contrary to their increased levels prevented by all the treatments. The serum creatinine level decreased significantly with ketotifen and combined treatment, while cyclosporine partially increased serum creatinine and urea levels. The urine microalbumin and protein levels increased significantly by cyclosporine, whereas they decrease with dipyridamole treatment. The protein levels decreased by quercetin and combined treatments. The kidney injury molecule-1 and retinol-binding protein levels increased by the cyclosporine while ketotifen treatment had partially decreased them. In conclusion, ketotifen and dipyridamole can prevent cyclosporine-induced hepatorenal toxicity and quercetin can increase the effectiveness of this treatment.

The occurrence and seasonal variation of aflatoxin B1 and zearalenone concentrations in poultry feeds


The present study aimed to investigate the contamination of poultry feed with aflatoxin B1 and zearalenone at laying hen farms in Tehran suburbs. The poultry feed was selected from five laying hen farms. A total of 60 poultry feed samples were collected from each farm during four consecutive seasons, from spring to winter of 2021. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to determine the amount of aflatoxin B1 and zearalenone. The mean aflatoxin B1 and zearalenone concentrations in various seasons indicated significant differences (P<0.01). The highest reported aflatoxin concentration was in winter, with a mean concentration of 1366.53±77.85 ng/kg. The lowest concentrations were reported in autumn and summer, indicating a significant difference (P<0.01). The highest concentration of zearalenone was reported in summer, with a mean concentration of 150.72±10.35 µg/kg. The lowest concentration was reported in winter, with a mean concentration of 22.87±10.35 µg/kg, indicating a statistically significant difference (P<0.01). Overall, the concentrations of aflatoxin B1 and zearalenone toxins significantly differed in various poultry farms. The poultry farm D indicated the highest aflatoxin contamination with a mean concentration of 648.08±59.89 ng/kg. Poultry farms A, B, and C indicated the highest zearalenone concentrations with mean concentrations of 125.17±20.61, 96.04±20.61, and 99.49±20.61 µg/kg, respectively. Autumn was the only season indicating significant differences regarding zearalenone toxin concentration in poultry farms.

Comparison of the results of sleeve gastrectomy, gastric pilication and liragulitide in obese rats


Obesity, which is generally seen in adults, is a serious health problem. Diseases caused by obesity are among the leading causes of death worldwide. Liraglutide (LG) is an analogue of glucagon-like peptide-1, which slows gastrointestinal motility, resulting in decreased food consumption. Gastric plication (GP) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) is the reduction of stomach volume by surgical means. We examined and compared the body mass index (BMI) changes, metabolic changes and changes in gastric histology in obese rats after LG injection with surgical methods such as SG and GP. In this research, 35 Wistar Albino female rats were used. Rats were divided into 5 groups with 7 rats in each group. Group (G) 1: The control group, fed with a normal calorie diet for 8 weeks. G 2: Sham group, G 3: SG group, G 4: GP group and G 5: LG group, fed with high-calorie feed for 4 weeks. At the end of the 4th week, the study was terminated by making appropriate interventions for the groups. When the blood glucose (BG) levels measured at the beginning, 4th week and 8th week of the experiment were evaluated, it was monitored that the BG level at the 8th week was the lowest in the LG group (p<0.05). It was observed that the preop Ghrelin and Leptin levels of the LG group were lower than those of the SG and GP groups (p<0.05). As a consequence of our metabolic investigations, we observed that the use of LG is at least as effective as SG.

PCR-based methods in dermatophytes detection and identification in dogs and cats with suspected dermatophytosis in 2021 in Poland


Dermatophytes from Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton genera are divided into geophilic, zoophilic and anthropophilic species which cause skin infection in human and wide group of animals, mainly mammals. Main species causing dermatophytosis in dogs and cats are Microsporum and Trichophyton. Conventional mycological diagnostic technique includes Saburaud Dextrose Agar (SAD) and others medium cultures, 10% KOH mount and direct microscopy of hairs and scraping. Molecular diagnostic become more frequent in veterinary practice due to the reduce results waiting time. In this study we based on two PCR methods, nested PCR amplified CHS1 gene for dermatophytes detection, and multiplex PCR coding ITS1 and ITS2 fragments for detected species identification. Most frequently detected species was Microsporum canis, mainly in young cats. Geophilic Microsporum gypseum and anthropophilic Trichophyton rubrum has been found primarily in dogs. Molecular methods in dermatophytosis identification are rapid in contrast to routinely, long lasting culture.

ABHD2 deficiency aggravates ovalbumin-induced airway remodeling through the PI3K/Akt pathway in an animal model of chronic asthma


Airway remodeling is a major pathological characteristic of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study aimed to investigate the effect of Abhd2 deficiency on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced airway remodeling and inflammation in vivo. Abhd2-deficient mice were used to establish an OVA-induced asthma model. Lung tissues were analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, Masson staining, immunohistochemistry, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and western blotting to determine the role of Abhd2 in the regulation of OVA-induced airway remodeling and inflammation. Our findings revealed that the RNA expression of inflammatory factors, including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-4, and IL-13, was significantly increased in OVA-induced Abhd2Gt/Gt asthmatic mice. The expression of IFN-γ was decreased significantly in OVA-induced Abhd2Gt/Gt asthmatic mice. The protein expression of airway remodeling factors, including α-SMA, type I collagen, and Ki67, was also increased in OVA-induced Abhd2Gt/Gt asthmatic mice compared to that in OVA-induced wild-type (WT) mice. Additionally, Abhd2 deficiency promoted the expression of p-Akt in tissues of the asthma model. These results suggest that Abhd2 deficiency exacerbates airway remodeling and inflammation through the PI3K/Akt pathway in chronic asthma.

Topical erythritol combined with L-ascorbyl-2-phosphate inhibits staphylococcal growth and alleviates staphylococcal overgrowth in skin lesions of canine superficial pyoderma


Erythritol (ERT) and L-ascorbyl-2-phosphate (APS) are bacteriostatic, but their effects on staphylococcal skin infections remain unknown. We aimed to determine whether ERT combined with APS inhibits the growth of staphylococci that are commonly isolated from pyoderma skin lesions in dogs. We investigated the individual and combined effects of ERT and APS on the growth of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, S. schleiferi, and S. aureus using turbidity assays in vitro. Skin lesions from 10 dogs with superficial pyoderma were topically treated with 5% ERT and 0.1% APS for 28 days, then swabbed skin samples were analyzed using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Results showed that ERT inhibited S. pseudintermedius growth regardless of harboring the mecA gene, and APS increased the inhibitory effects of ERT against S. pseudintermedius, S. schleiferi, and S. aureus in vitro. Moreover, combined ERT and APS decreased the prevalence of staphylococci on canine skin lesions at the genus level. The combination slightly increased the α-diversity but did not affect the β-diversity of the microbiota. The qPCR results revealed that the combination significantly decreased S. pseudintermedius and S. schleiferi in skin lesions. Topical administration of EPS combined with APS can prevent staphylococcal colonization on the surface of mammalian skin.

The Effects of Proanthocyanidin on Testicular Toxicity in Rats Exposed to a Glyphosate-Based Herbicide


The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of proanthocyanidin (PA) on spermatological parameters and testicular toxicity in male rats exposed to glyphosate (GLP). In our study, four groups were formed out of 24 male rats, each group would include 6 rats. The rats in the PA were given a dose of 400 mg/kg/day dissolved in DMSO via gastric gavage. The rats in the GLP+PA were first given GLP at the LD50/10 dose of 787.85 mg/kg/day, followed by administering PA at a dose of 400 mg/kg/day dissolved in DMSO via gastric gavage. The rats in the GLP were given GLP at the LD50/10 dose of 787.85 mg/kg/day dissolved in DMSO via gastric gavage. It was determined that in terms of motility, in comparison to the control group, the decreased in the GLP group and the increases in the PA and GLP+PA groups were statistically significant (p<0.001). The administration of GLP increased DNA damage compared to the control group, but the GLP+PA and PA applications reduced DNA damage (p<0.001). The analysis of testosterone levels indicated a statistically significant reduction in the GLP group compared to the other groups. Consequently, it was determined that PA effectively prevented the decreases in the spermatological parameters lowered as a result of GLP exposure and the oxidative stress and toxicity in testicular tissue.

The effect of benign prostatic hyperplasia on total antioxidant capacity and protein peroxidation in canine prostatic fluid and spermatozoa.


The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidative/oxidative status of spermatozoa and prostatic fluid in dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) by the determination of total antioxidant capacity and protein peroxidation markers. Study was conducted on 40 intact dogs of various breeds. The dogs were assigned to two groups: BPH group (n=20) and non-affected group (n=20). The second and third fractions of the ejaculate were collected separately by digital manipulation. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the concentrations of SH-groups in sperm and prostatic fluid were determined spectrophotometrically, the concentrations of bityrosine and formylkynurenine were determined using spectrofluorimetric methods. The mean values of TAC in spermatozoa and prostatic fluid were significantly lower (p<0.05), whereas the mean contents of biotyrosine and formylkinurenine were significantly higher (p<0.05) in BPH dogs compared to control dogs. There was no statistically significant difference in the content of SH group between dogs with BPH and control dogs (p>0.05). In conclusion, the results indicate that BPH in dogs is associated with reduced total antioxidant capacity and increased protein oxidation in the prostatic fluid and spermatozoa, and suggest the importance of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of this condition. The potential role of antioxidants in the prevention and therapy of canine BPH requires further studies.

Nitric oxide production by spermatozoa and sperm characteristics in dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia


he aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) on nitric oxide (NO) production by spermatozoa and sperm parameters in dogs. The study was conducted on 40 intact dogs of various breeds. The dogs were assigned to two groups: BPH group (n = 20) and non-affected group (n = 20). The sperm concentration and motility parameters of spermatozoa were assessed using computer-assisted sperm analysis. For the assessment of sperm morphology monochromatic Diff-Quick stain was used. Plasma membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential and the spermatozoa producing nitric oxide and with apoptotic-like changes were determined using fluorescent stain methods. The percentages of motile sperm, sperm with progressive motility and normal sperm were statistically significantly (p < 0.05) lower in dogs with BPH than in non-affected dogs. The proportion of sperm in motility subcategory RAPID was statistically significantly (p < 0.05) lower in dogs with BPH than in control dogs, whereas in the STATIC motility subcategory the proportion was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in dogs with BPH. The percentage of spermatozoa producing NO was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in dogs with BPH than in control dogs. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that BPH adversely affects semen quality, especially motility, in dogs. The decreased semen quality was associated with an increased proportion of spermatozoa generating NO. Further research is needed to clarify the mechanisms by which BPH affects semen quality.

Pelvic dimensions and occurrence of dystocia in Black-and-White and Holstein-Friesian heifers


The Black-and-White (BW) breed, which until recently had dominated in Europe, was replaced by the Holstein-Friesian (HF) breed. As a result, the incidence of dystocia has increased. Dystocia occurs most frequently in heifers, and it is associated with high calf weight and/or too narrow pelvic openings in heifers. The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the effects of pelvic dimensions and rump angle on calving ease in two cattle breeds. The research was carried out in four barns where BW and HF cattle were used. The course of parturition was evaluated in 317 heifers (BW, n=169; HF, n=148) based on direct observations. Calves were weighed, external and internal pelvic measurements were performed (using the Rice pelvimeter), and rump angle was determined in heifers. Based on the course of parturition, heifers of both breeds were divided into easy calving (EC) and difficult calving (DC) groups. The frequency of DC was 24.3% in HF heifers and 13.1% in BW heifers. In comparison with DC heifers, EC heifers had a larger pelvic area, in particular the internal dimensions of the bony pelvis, and a higher rump angle. In comparison with BW heifers, HF heifers had a smaller rump angle, a narrower pelvis and a lower ratio of pelvic area to calf weight. High dystocia rates in HF heifers could result from a relatively large fetus size and a less preferable pelvic size and rump angle. High variation in the internal pelvic dimensions in HF heifers indicates that the incidence of dystocia can be reduced through selection for a larger pelvic size and the optimal rump angle.

Influence of various lactic bacteria on the viability of reference strain of Listeria monocytogenes 123 serotype I in plant foods


Listeria (L.) monocytogenes is the causative agent of human listeriosis, the frequent source of which is food of animal origin. The aim of study was to determine the influence of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the viability of Listeria in carrot juice and compound feed inoculated with L. monocytogenes. The effect of homogenous cultures of Streptococcus (Str.) lactis distaticus, Str. thermophilus and Lactobacillus (Lac.) lactis subsp. Cremoris and the combination of Str. thermophilus with Lac. bulgaricus in carrot juice and compound feed samples inoculated with L. monocytogenes were examined. There were no statistically significant differences in the results between the experimental groups. Regardless of used LAB, the results showed that the mean pH values in carrot juice samples decreased from an initial pH of 6.7 to a mean value of 3.7 on 15 experimental day. The Listeria concentration in carrot juice samples decreased from average of 4.94 on day 5 to 3.24 log CFU/mL on day 10, and on day 15 achieved <0.01 log CFU/mL. In the compound feed trials, the pH decreased average from initial 6.5 to 3.7 on day 15. The concentration of Listeria decreases, similarly to the carrot juice samples, from average 5.0 on day 5 to 4.68 on day 10 and on day 15 achieved <0.01 log CFU/mL. In control samples, the number of listeria Listeria increased throughout the study period and amounted to 9.2-9.84 log CFU/mL/g in all samples. The activity of LAB has been shown to be antagonistic to L. monocytogenes. The results of the study did not show any clear differences in the effect between the used LAB strains in limiting the L. monocytogenes concentration. Based on the obtained results it can be conducted that the addition of LAB to animal food increases its microbiological safety.

Clinical evaluation of antiviral combination treatment in cats with feline herpesvirus-1 infection


Feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) can cause lifelong problems such as rhinotracheitis and ocular disease due to latency and reactivation in affected cats. The particular effects of antiviral drugs have been separately investigated in previous studies for decades and little is known about the combination treatment in active FHV-1 infection. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effects of antiviral combination on clinical effectiveness in cats with naturally occurring FHV-1 infection. 28 cats suffering from clinical signs of sneezing, nasal congestion, conjunctivitis, and eye/nose discharge were involved in this study following FHV-1 DNA detection by PCR assay in oculo-oropharyngeal samples. The treatment protocol was as follows: oral famciclovir and L-lysine, ophthalmic acyclovir, and subcutaneous amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid. The symptoms improved each day and total recovery success rate was 80% reduction in clinical scores at the end of the treatment on day 10 (p<0.001). Additionally, PCR was found to be negative for FHV-1 DNA in 82.1% of the samples after the treatment. There were mild decreases in neutrophil and monocyte counts (p>0.05). The arginine to lysine ratio decreased in favour of lysine (p<0.01). As a result, the antiviral combination treatment with famciclovir, L-lysine and ophthalmic acyclovir, and antibacterial drug appears to be clinically effective for the treatment of naturally occurring active FHV-1 infection in cats. In addition, any adverse clinical effect has not been determined associated with the antiviral combination during the study.

Association between sperm morphology and sperm count of boar semen


The number of spermatozoa in the ejaculate is important for its quality and that of the sperm contained in it. The number of ejaculated spermatozoa is also associated with sperm dimensions. The aim of this study was to assess the morphological structure of sperm and the frequency of morphological abnormalities in sperm on the ejaculation performance of boars, measured as the total number sperm per ejaculate. The study was conducted using 648 ejaculates collected from 31 Large White boars and 30 Landrace boars. All ejaculates were analysed for basic physical characteristics and the frequency of sperm with morphological abnormalities. In addition, morphometric measurements of the sperm were made and used to calculate their shape indexes. As a result of our study it was noted that sperm from ejaculates with the most spermatozoa have shorter heads with a smaller area than sperm from ejaculates with a small or intermediate number of spermatozoa. Landrace boars produce semen of better quality, with a smaller percentage of sperm with major abnormalities, and the differences between the breeds increase with the number of spermatozoa in the ejaculate. The sperm from Landrace boars have larger heads and longer flagella than the sperm from Large White boars. The differences in sperm dimensions between breeds decrease as the total number of spermatozoa in the ejaculate increases. The number of spermatozoa in the ejaculate was shown to influence the dimensions of the sperm.The effect of the number of ejaculated sperm on ejaculate characteristics and sperm morphology depends on the breed of the male.

Vaginal aerobic bacteria of healthy bitches and those with fertility problems.


The most common problems in veterinary practice in bitches are bacterial infections of the reproductive tract associated with fertility problems. Research to determine the correlation between the health status of female dogs and bacterial flora of the genital tract has been ongoing for years, but the results obtained by different authors are often contradictory, and do not always concern breeding bitches. Our study identified the most common aerobic bacteria in the genital tract of numerous breeding bitches population. A total of 275 breeding dogs in anestrous phase of the estrous cycle were included in this study. 198 were qualified to the first group with no genital tract infections and no reproductive disorders. 68 bitches were qualified to the second group with complications such as: infertility, abortion, foetus resorptions and newborn mortality. The type of bacterial isolates was almost the same in the healthy bitches and the group with fertility problems. The most common bacteria obtained from the vaginal tract of the tested dogs were Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Mycoplasma canis and Escherichia coli. There were no significant differences in bacterial prevalence in the group with reproductive problems versus healthy dogs; however, we found a statistically significant difference between both groups, when the numbers of bacterial strains were compared. The number of one-strain bitches was statistically higher in the problematic group than in the non-problematic one. Bacterial culturing of vaginal swab specimens from breeding bitches without clinical signs of genital disease is of little value. Furthermore, it should always be preceded by an examination (clinical, cytological or vaginoscopy etc.). The request or requirement to perform vaginal cultures that is made by some breeders, while common, is not diagnostic for any pathologic condition and the results of these cultures should never be used to determine if antibiotic therapy is indicated.

Ultrasonographic image of fatty infiltration of the liver correlates with selected biochemical parameters and back fat thickness of periparturient Holstein-Friesian cows


During the transition period, the cow’s body activates adaptive mechanisms aimed at adjusting to the changing demand for energy and nutrients, which are necessary for the growing fetus and the subsequent start of milk production. This time is also associated with an increased risk of metabolic diseases and reproductive disorders. Our study aimed to identify prepartum and postpartum biochemical markers and weight loss patterns that could differentiate cows that would exhibit ultrasonographic signs of liver fatty infiltration during the latter half of the transition period. The study was performed in a single herd of Holstein-Friesian cows and the animals were divided into two groups: CON (n=13) – cows without ultrasonographic signs of fatty liver, and FL (n=16) – cows with ultrasonographic signs of fatty liver. Backfat thickness and specific biochemical parameters were measured weekly from one week before parturition to 9 weeks postpartum. Our study highlights the importance of using a combination of monitoring methods to assess the metabolic status of transition dairy cattle. The results showed that ultrasound measurements of backfat thickness, blood NEFA levels, glucose concentration, and AST activity were all different (p < 0.05) between the control and FL groups, indicating the usefulness of these parameters in monitoring the health status of transition cows. Additionally, the results suggest that high prepartum glucose levels (4.99 mmol/l) could serve as a potential marker for future FL, while the elevated NEFA levels (0.51 mmol/l) and decreased AST activity (80.56 u/l) in FL animals indicate their potential as indicators of lipid mobilization and liver structural damage, respectively.