Accepted articles-next issues

Molecular detection and subtype distribution of Blastocystis sp. from shelter dogs and cats in Van, Türkiye: First report of ST10 in cats and ST1, ST10 and ST30 in dogs
Dr Orunc Kılınc, Ph.D. ÇELİK, Ph.D. Aslan Çelik, Ph.D. Candidate OKTAY AYAN, Assoc. Prof. Ayan, Assoc. Prof Yılmaz,

Blastocystis is an intestinal protist commonly found in humans and many different animal species. It is probably the most common enteric parasite with an estimated one billion infections worldwide. The fecal materials for this study were collected from 100 cats and 200 dogs different age and sex in shelter in Van, Turkey. DNA extraction, PCR amplification and sequence analysis were performed on the fecal samples. As a result, a prevalence of 1% (1/100) in cats and 1.5% (3/200) in dogs was detected. The prevalence was higher in both cats and dogs, in age groups younger than one year and in females according to gender. Sequence analysis revealed Blastocystis sp. ST10 in cats and Blastocystis sp. ST1, ST10 and ST30 in dogs. The sequences obtained were deposited in Genbank. In conclusion, stray cats and dogs may be a source of infection for other cats and dogs, and the detection of zoonotic ST1 in dogs suggests that dogs may be a reservoir for human infection.

Assessment of left atrial size, left atrial volume, and left ventricular function and its relation to spontaneous echocardiographic contrast in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: A preliminary Study
MR KAYA, phD Çolakoğlu, Ph.D. SEVİM,

The aim of this study here to evaluate the association between spontaneous echocardiographic contrast (SEC) and left atrial parameters such as size, volume, and function in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Cats were assigned into groups; clinically healthy cats (n:8), HCM without SEC (n:12) and HCM with SEC (n:8) in the study. LAFS% and LAFAC had a statistical significance between groups. In conclusion, compared to healthy individuals, the presence of decreased trend in levels of LAFS% and LAFAC in HCMSEC cats could be a predictive marker for the thromboembolic risk assessment. Further studies enrolled the asymptomatic HCM cats in study groups need to be conducted to define a cut-off value of LAFS% and LAFAC before the SEC formation.

Immunolocalization of SGLT1 and SGLT2 in kidneys of chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) of different ages
DVM, MSc Järveots, DMSci Hussar, DVM Dūrītis, Master's degree in Veterinary Medicine, DVM Allmang,

In homeostasis, which plays an important role in the proper functioning and maintenance of the internal functioning of the body, kidneys play a key role in being responsible for the proper homeostasis of glucose. Among glucose transporters sodium-dependent glucose co-transporters (SGLT’s) have a major role of the kidney‘s ability to reabsorb glucose. Despite the localization of these transporters has been extensively studied in mammals, there are still gaps in knowledge of the localization of SGLT‘s in birds of different age groups. The aim of the study was to immunolocalize in kidneys of hen chicken of different ages the sodium-dependent glucose co-transporters SGLT1 and SGLT2 comparing the localization between different age groups. The kidneys derived from 32 hen chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) were devided equally into four age groups: 3, 7, 14, and 20 days old broilers, 8 indivuals in each group. In the study, the polyclonal primary antibodies Rabbit anti- SGLT1 and Rabbit anti-SGLT2 (Abcam, UK) were used together with the corresponding IHC kit (Abcam, UK). The results were visualized by taking photos with the AxioCam HRc camera (Germany) connected to the microscope Zeiss Axioplan-2 Imaging (Germany). The study revealed the similar immunolocalization of SGLT1 and SGLT2 in the apical part of cells of proximal renal tubules in hen chickens’ kidneys in all age groups. Strong staining of SGLT2 was noted also in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells of the proximal straight and convoluted tubules. Based on our study, the kidney tissue of newly hatched chicken is ready immediately after hatching for glucose reabsorption and transport, similarily to that of three-week-old chicks.

The Use of Immunocontraception in the Regulation of Male Goat Sexual Activity
MVDr., Ph.D. Indrova, MVDr. Hochmanova, MVDr. Simkova, Ph.D. Novotny, doc. Bina,

In our experiment, we focused on continuous monitoring of the immunocontraceptive effect of Improvac® vaccine on the sexual activity of male goats, which was determined by measuring plasma testosterone levels, testicular biometric and ejaculate examination. The animals in the experimental group (n = 12) were administered two doses of 2 ml of Improvac® in a four-week interval; the animals in the control group (n = 5) received 2 ml of saline, respectively. Blood collection, semen collection and testicular measurements were performed at 14-day intervals. A total of 8 samples were collected from each animal. In 9 animals a significant decrease (p <0.05) in testosterone concentration was observed two weeks after the first dose. At the end of the experiment (16 weeks), eight goats reached the testosterone concentration below the detection limit, one goat had a concentration of 0.47 nmol/L. The testicular size was significantly (p <0.01) smaller four weeks after the first dose. At the end of the experiment, the testicular size was approximately three times smaller (p <0.001). Motility was 0% in two goats at the end of the experiment, 1 % in one animal and 10 % in one animal, respectively. The median sperm concentration was significantly lower (p <0.01) at the end of the experiment. A significant (p < 0.0001) shift in the percentage of morphological changes was recorded eight weeks after the first administration. At the end of the experiment, there were five animals with azoospermia, two with 100% morphologically altered sperm, one with 99% and one with 96% morphologically altered sperm, respectively. In the 3 male goats, a significant skin reaction occurred after the first application, which resulted in an inadequate response of the treatment. Our results show that Improvac has a significant effect on the sexual function and sperm production in 9 out of 12 bucks.

Understanding ultrasonographic renal length-to-aorta ratio in Sighthounds: A breed specific study in Chippiparai dogs
Dr Devaraju, Dr. Lenka, Dr. Kumar, Dr. R., Dr. S., Dr. Pandian,

Ultrasonographic renal length-to-aorta ratio is an ideal reflection of renal health in dogs. Earlier studies have highlighted the need for breed-specific reference intervals for this parameter. The aim of this study was to establish a breed-specific reference interval of kidney length to aorta ratio (KL:Ao) in Chippiparai dogs, a breed of Indian sighthounds. The KL:Ao ratio was recorded in 45 Chippiparai dogs, classified into 3 age groups. A narrow breed specific range of 7.07 to 7.74 was arrived at for adult Chippiparai dogs, and a strong relationship between age and body weight and KL:Ao was observed by regression analysis. These findings can be extrapolated and utilized by other sighthounds.

M.V.Sc., Duraisamy, Dr Selvaraju, M.V.Sc., R, Dr S, Dr R,

For the current investigation, 5-7-year-old Kangayam bulls were used. The semen was collected twice in a week and two ejaculates in each time were collected. They were subsequently transported to the laboratory for processing of semen and maintained in a water bath at 34°C. On the day of semen collection, three groups of semen prepared with Tris-egg-yolk Glycerol Extender (TEYG) (group I), TEGY extenders with hyaluronan (group II), and TEGY extenders with metformin (group III) and stored in a water bath at 34°C. According to the group, the semen sample was first diluted in the ratio of 1:1 with the appropriate extender (TEYG, hyaluronan enriched or metformin enriched) and kept in laminar air flow at 22°C for seven minutes. Then each semen sample was extended using the appropriate semen extender in accordance with the dilution rate. After filling, sealing and printing, the final diluted semen sample was subjected to equilibration. As per the standard routine protocol freezing was done. Oocytes were collected from cyclical animals on days 1, 5, 9 after estrus by ultrasound guided transvaginal ovum pick-up method after ablation of day 0 pre-ovulatory follicle. After oocyte and sperm maturation, the co-incubation of oocyte and sperm was done and in vitro penetration rate was recorded. The overall in vitro penetration rate recorded in Kangayam cow was 46.66 per cent. Maximum in vitro penetration rate was observed in group II (52 per cent) followed by group III (46 per cent) and in group I (42 per cent). Based on the above findings, it was concluded that hyaluronan enriched semen may be used as pragmatic approach for cryopreservation of Kangayam bull semen in order to augment the in vitro penetration rate in Kangayam.

Potential molecular targets and pathways of a traditional Chinese medicine formula for bovine endometritis identified by network pharmacology
Dr Li, Dr Li, Dr Zhigang, Dr Xiaoya, Dr Panpan, Dr Wei, Dr Kuohai, Dr Na,

Bovine endometritis has become a persistent issue in the global dairy business, resulting in huge economic losses. Due to their numerous positive benefits, Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) have recently demonstrated remarkable pharmacological potential against endometritis. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects and elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the Yimucao formula (YMF) consisting of five herbs in lactation cows under endometritis conditions. Initially, the possible effects of YMF on cows with endometritis were assessed. Then, using network pharmacology, potential molecular processes by which the YMF prevents endometritis were suggested. The findings demonstrated a considerable improvement in endometritis-related clinical complaints following YMF treatment. Mechanically, 150 active compounds were identified from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP); of these, quercetin, kaempferol, beta-sitosterol, apigenin, isorhamnetin, and sitogluside were the most prevalent active substances. The NCBI gene, GeneCard, and OMIM databases had 110 genes linked to endometritis. The intersection of these targets with the 213 targets of the active ingredient produced 17 common targets, of which BCL2, IL-6, MMP9, HIF1α, TNF, IL-1β, and ICAM1 were the top 7 core targets. According to the Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment data, atherosclerosis, fluid shear stress, and the AGE-RAGE signaling pathway are the primary causes of YMF's anti-endometritis action. Finally, our results indicate that the YMF works on endometritis through various and multi-targeted signaling pathways, which aid in providing reference for clinical practice, based on network pharmacology and molecular docking.