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Determination of antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence-related genes of Trueperella pyogenes strains isolated from various clinical specimens in animals
Asist. Prof. Dr GULAYDIN, Assoc. Prof. Dr GULAYDIN, Asist. Prof. Dr KAYIKCI,

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In this study, a total of 32 Trueperella pyogenes strains isolated from different disease specimens in cattle, sheep and goats were examined. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates to 10 antimicrobials were determined by using E-test method and MIC values of the antimicrobials were investigated. The genes that play role in the antimicrobial resistance or virulence of T. pyogenes were determined by PCR using gene specific primers. In the study, all the isolates were susceptible to penicillin and cephalosporin. The highest resistance rate in the isolates was determined against streptomycin (56.25%) and tetracycline (53.12%) and MIC90 values of these antimicrobials were found to be >256 µg/ml and 12 µg/ml, respectively. The ermX gene was found to be positive in 8 (80%) of 10 isolates that were resistant to macrolide group antimicrobials. Among 20 aminoglycoside resistant isolates, aadA1, aadA9, strA-strB, and aac(6')-aph(2'') genes were determined in 5 (25%), 14 (70%), 7 (35%) and 1 (5%) of the isolates, respectively. When the presence of virulence-related genes in the isolates was examined, nanP (93.75%), fimA (93.75%) and plo (90.62%) genes were detected in the majority of the isolates. While the cbpA gene was negative in all isolates, the fimG gene was found in a limited number of the isolates (15.62%). It was concluded that streptomycin and tetracycline resistance should be considered in T. pyogenes isolates. Also, nanP, fimA and plo genes may have an important role in the pathogenesis of the infections.



Investigation of the presence of Chlamydia spp., Mycoplasma spp. and Moraxella ovis in infectious keratoconjunctivitis cases in sheep and goats in Siirt province and evaluation of clinical findings
Asist. Prof. Dr GULAYDIN, Assoc. Prof. Dr GULAYDIN, Assoc.Prof. Dr AKGUL, Prof. Dr SINDAK, Res. Asist. YILDIRIM,

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Infectious keratoconjunctivitis is an infectious disease that negatively affects animal welfare causing systemic or local clinical signs in small ruminants and causes significant economic losses in herds. It is important to determine the etiologic agent causing the infection in the development of the protection and control strategies against the disease. The aim of the study was to determine the presence of infectious keratoconjunctivitis cases in small ruminants raised in Siirt province of Türkiye. Infectious keratoconjunctivitis was graded according to the symptoms determined by clinical examination. The presence of Chlamydia spp., Mycoplasma spp. and Moraxella ovis was investigated by PCR in the swab samples obtained from the animals with keratoconjunctivitis. Infectious keratoconjunctivitis was detected in 263 (19.86%) of 1324 animals examined in the study. Of the animals with infectious keratoconjunctivitis, 163 (61.97%) were sheep and 100 (38.02%) were goats. The detection rate of infectious keratoconjunctivitis was higher in sheep than goats. In 56 (21.29%), 109 (41.44%), 67 (25.47%), and 31 (11.78%) of the cases, findings of stage 1, 2, 3, and 4 infectious keratoconjunctivitis were detected, respectively. Of the eye swab samples taken from 263 animals with infectious keratoconjunctivitis, 5 (1.90%) were positive for Mycoplasma spp. and 6 (2.28%) were positive for M. ovis. It was determined that the distribution of the bacterial agents varied according to the stage of infectious keratoconjunctivitis. No statistically significant correlation was found in the distribution of bacterial agents among identified samples according to species, sex, age, and infectious keratoconjunctivitis stage of the animals. It was thought that the data obtained in the study would contribute to the studies for protection and control by determining the incidence and aetiology of infectious keratoconjunctivitis cases observed in small ruminants.



E. coli in diarrhoeic lambs: Prevalence, virulence and antibiotic resistance
PhD SOLANKI, Ph.D. SINGATHIA, M.V.Sc Gurjar, Ph.D Sharma, Ph.D. Gaurav, Ph.D Kumari, Ph.D Gautam, M.V.Sc Rathore,

The present study aimed to detect the prevalence, virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes profile of E. coli isolated from diarrhoeic lambs. A total of 61 faecal samples were collected from diarrhoeic lambs. The presence of various virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes in E. coli isolates was determined by the use of PCR. In total, 46 E. coli isolates were recovered from 61 rectal swabs of diarrhoeic lambs. Out of these 46 isolates, PCR showed that seven isolates (15.22%) carried the stx1 or stx2 gene and were found positive for Shiga-toxin- producing E. coli (STEC). Four isolates (8.70%) were found to be Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and all these EPEC isolates were atypical EPEC pathotypes. STEC and intimin-positive isolates were recovered only from one isolate, hence, out of 46 isolates, only one isolate (2.17%) was confirmed as Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli. The lt and st genes were not detected in any of the E. coli isolates recovered from field samples. Therefore, all the isolates were confirmed as non-Enterotoxigenic E. coli. Further, Thirty-five isolates (76.09%) were found to be Entero-aggregative E. coli pathotypes. All the E. coli isolates were also tested for antimicrobial resistance against 15 different antibiotics. All the E. coli isolates were found to be resistant to penicillin-G, cephalothins, and azithromycin and the majority of isolates of E. coli were sensitive to chloramphenicol, ofloxacin, and sulfafurazole. Two antibiotic resistance genes i.e. tetA and blaTEM were detected in 10.87% (n=5/46) and 28.26% (n=13/46) of E. coli isolates respectively.



Edible insects as a source of dietary protein for companion animals with food responsive enteropathies – perspectives and possibilities.
DVM, PhD Gałęcki, lek.wet. Kaczmar, DVM, PhD Hanuszewska-Dominiak,

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The incidence of chronic enteropathies (CE), in particular food-responsive enteropathies (FRE) in dogs, is on the rise in veterinary practice. The symptoms of these digestive disorders cannot be alleviated with the use of commercial hypoallergenic feeds. The applicability of novel substrates in hypoallergenic dog feeds is limited, and edible insects could pose a viable alternative. Insects have a high nutritional value, and their potential can be harnessed to design personalized nutrition strategies. However, the use of insects in animal feeds should be rigorously tested. The aim of this study was to analyze the applicability of edible insects as a source of dietary protein for companion animals, including the current and future prospects. Canine food formulas should be evaluated in a clinical setting. The role edible insects in pet diets and the efficacy of this substrate in animal nutrition should be examined in advanced clinical trials in gastroenterology, histology, immunology, and microbiology. These efforts are required to guarantee the safety and efficacy of innovative insect-based feeds and to increase their popularity among veterinary practitioners, pet food producers, and animal owners.



Prevalence of Hepatozoon canis infection in dogs from the area of Lublin Voivodship
prof dr hab Adaszek, DVM PhD Teodorowski, Professor Skrzypczak, Professor Winiarczyk, DVM Pisarek, Assoc Prof Dokuzeylul, Prof.Dr. Or, dr Rutkowska-Szulczyk, dr Deneka,

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Canine hepatozoonosis is a tick-borne protozoal disease. Two species of Hepatozoon may infect dogs: Hepatozoon americanum and H. canis. The aim of the paper was to attempt to detect the genetic material of H. canis in blood samples collected from dogs suspected to suffer from tick-borne diseases. 107 samples were tested with the use of the real-time PCR technique (Vcheck M Bionote analyser), of which 99 were collected from dogs which never left Polish territory (group 1) and 8 from dogs which spent the holidays with their owners in Turkey (group 2). DNA of H. canis was detected in 1 dog in group 1 (with Ixodes ricinus infestation), and 2 dogs in group 2 (with Ripicephalus sanguineus infestation). The presented results indicate that infections with H. canis should be taken into account and included in the differential diagnosis of vector-borne diseases in dogs in Poland, and the accurate identification of the infection agent is crucial for developing the correct treatment regimen and prognosis



Investigation of the Relationship Between Plasma Ghrelin Levels and Muscle Atrophy in Experimental Diabetic Rats
phd Aşır, PHD AYGÜN KEŞİM, Prof.Dr KELLE, phd KAYHAN KAYA, PHD GÖKDEMİR, PHD KOÇ DİREK, Professor Diken,

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In this study, the relationship between plasma ghrelin levels and muscle atrophy was examined in an experimental diabetic rat model. 56 male Wistar albino rats, aged 8-10 weeks, were used in the study. The rats were divided into 8 groupsD1: one-week diabetes, C1: one-week control, D2: three-week diabetes, C2: three-week control, D3: six-week diabetes, C3: six-week control, D4: eight-week diabetes, C4: eight-week control. To induce diabetes, rats were injected with a single dose of 45 mg/kg intraperitoneal streptozotocin. At the end of the experiments, body weights and fasting blood sugar levels were measured. mTOR and myostatin levels of gastrocnemius muscle and plasma ghrelin levels were measured by ELISA method. Gastrocnemius muscle weight, cross-sectional area and histopathological images were examined. It was observed that the gastrocnemius weights of the D2, D3, D4 groups decreased significantly compared to their controls (p≤0.01). Muscle cross-sectional area decreased significantly in groups D3 and D4 compared to controls (p≤0.01). Muscle mTOR levels were found to be significantly lower in all diabetic groups compared to controls (p≤0.01). Although muscle myostatin levels were higher in the diabetic groups, this increase was only significant in the D4 group. Plasma ghrelin levels were significantly lower in all diabetic groups compared to controls (p≤0.01). A positive correlation was determined between plasma ghrelin levels and the final weights, muscle cross-sectional area, gastrocnemius weights and mTOR levels of the rats. Time-dependent muscle atrophy developed in diabetic rats and there was a relationship between muscle atrophy and plasma ghrelin level. We suggest that ghrelin plays a role in diabetes-induced muscle atrophy as well as cachexia and sarcopenia.



Effect of sex on the levels of total arsenic (As) and As(III) in dog urine: a preliminary study
PhD Cygan-Szczegielniak, mgr inż. Szczech,

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The aim of the study was to analyze differences in the concentration of total arsenic (As) and As(III) in urine depending on the sex of mixed-breed dogs. Therefore, a research hypothesis was put forward that sex is a variable determining the degree and efficiency of urinary arsenic excretion. Two study groups were established: female (group 1) and male (group 2) mixed-breed dogs of similar body weight (9-13 kg) and aged 8-11 years. Urine samples were collected using a device designed specially for this purpose (utility model registered at the Patent Office of the Republic of Poland, no. WUP 13/2023). Samples were wet-digested following the protocol presented in the PN-EN 13805:2014 standard and analysed using an EcaFlow 150 GLP coulometer integrated with an E-53 Au electrode and EcaCell. Arsenic content in dog food was also measured to verify the effect of this variable. Results were analyzed using Statistica 13.1 software. Sex had a significant effect on the urinary arsenic excretion. The levels of total As and As(III) were significantly higher in urine from male dogs (18.45 and 2.92 [µg·L-1]; p≤0.05) with compared to urine from female dogs (13.43 and 1.67 [µg·L-1], respectively).



Treatment with mannose oligosaccharides reverses the intestinal injury in the acetylsalicylic acid-treated rat model
Phd Qiao, Phd Wang, master Chen, PhD Huang, PhD Duan, PhD Su, master Yang, master Chou, master Chen, master Zhang,

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Mannose oligosaccharide (MOS) has been shown to promote animal growth, maintain intestinal health, and activate the intestinal immune system. However, the question of whether MOS can stimulate the immune system and alleviate acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)-induced gut damage re-mains unresolved. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of MOS pretreatment on the immunological and anti-inflammatory capabilities of rats with ASA-induced intestinal injury. Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups and were fed with 0 (negative control), 100, 300, 600, and 800 mg/kg·Body weight (BW) of MOS for 3 weeks. From day 8, rats were fed with 200 mg/kg BW of ASA for 14 days to induce intestinal injury. The growth performance, viscera index, serum and intestinal immunity, intestinal inflammation and morphology of ASA-induced intestinal injury rats with or without MOS administration were investigated. In MOS deficient rats, oral treatment of ASA causes severe intestine damage and immunological dysfunction. In a rat model, 600 mg/kg BW MOS can lower the expression of inflammatory markers and effectively increase liver index, serum interleukin-2 (IL-2), lyso-zyme contents, intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and mucus volume, intestinal vil-lus height, crypt depth and villus height/crypt depth in comparison to the ASA group. These re-sults imply that providing rats with MOS at the appropriate dosage can significantly improve their immune system and successfully shield the intestines from ASA damage. MOS is therefore expected to be a promising gut immunopotentiator for enhancing intestinal health in animals.



Evaluation of calcium, phosphorus and some biochemical parameters in dogs with open and closed cervix pyometra
Assoc Prof, Phd DVM Günay Uçmak, PHD DVM Kurban, DVM İslamoğlu, Assoc Prof Namlı, Assoc Prof Türkan,

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in calcium, phosphorus and some biochemical parameters in dogs with open and closed cervix pyometra, which was then compared with a control group. A total of 62 bitches of age group 5-10 years old irrespective of breed were enrolled into the study. Control group consisted of 22 bitches which were clinically healthy and in luteal phase of the estrus cycle. On clinical examination, pyometra was diagnosed in 40 bitches while 23 out of 40 bitches had open-cervix pyometra and 17 of 40 bitches had closed-cervix pyometra. Evaluation of haematological changes revealed that there was increased white blood cell (WBC), total protein (TP), globulin, alkaline phosphatase (ALKP) while decreased glucose (Glu), albumin (Alb) and albümin globulin ratio in pyometra cases (p<0.001). The highest WBC and ALKP levels were detected in closed-cervix pyometra group (p<0.001). Calcium (Ca+2) levels had significant rise in open-cervix pyometra cases (p<0.05) while phosphorus (Phos) levels had tend to increase in closed-cervix pyometra cases (p=0.08). Also, Ca was directly correlated with Glu, Alb and TP while inversely correlated with WBC and blood urea nitrogen/creatinine (BUN/Crea). However, Phos was significantly associated with BUN and Crea (p<0.001; R=0.915 and R=0.860, respectively). As a result of this study, it was observed that the increased Ca levels in open-cervix cases and the elevated Phos levels in closed-cervix cases, were associated with the biochemical parameters related to hepatic and renal dysfunction in dogs with pyometra.



Effect of feeding spent coffee grounds on the methane production in bovine rumen
PhD Kawai , Miss Yamada, Mr. Inui, Mr. Oda, Dr. Kurumisawa, PhD Shinozuka, Mrs. Shimizu,

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The environmental impact of methane, a greenhouse gas emitted from ruminants, is a pressing issue, and methods to control methane emissions from ruminants are being investigated worldwide. In this study, we investigated the effects of the administration of spent coffee grounds (SCG) on methane production in the rumen in two cows. In the control condition (days 1 and 2), the cows were fed a basic diet twice daily (roughage and concentrate), and in the SCG condition (days 3 and 4), the cows were fed the same basic diet and administered SCG into the rumen twice daily. The methane and carbon dioxide concentrations in rumen gas were measured via a fistula after feeding on days 2 and 4 of the study. The measurements were made using a newly developed gas measurement system with a portable gas monitor, and data were obtained for the control condition and SCG condition at each measurement time. The methane ratio at each measurement time was calculated from the methane and carbon dioxide concentrations, and compared between the two conditions. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the two conditions in the methane ratios after the morning (p=0.108) and afternoon feedings (p=0.345) ; however, the methane ratios before the morning (p=0.043) and afternoon feedings (p=0.008) were significantly lower in the SCG condition than in the control condition, suggesting that the administration of SCG may suppress methane production in the rumen.



The effect of selected bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas on the quality of raw cow's milk
assoc prof Marcincak, DVM, PhD. Výrostková, DVM, PhD. Regecová, DVM., PhD. Maľová, Mgr, PhD. Kováčová, doc. DVM., PhD. Dudriková,

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Pseudomonas spp. are a psychrotrophic species associated with milk spoilage caused by its enzymatic activities. The aim of this study was to identify Pseudomonas spp. in raw cow milk and to investigate their associated enzymatic properties and the ability to produce pyoverdine pigment. By identification using the PCR method, of (n = 320) samples of raw cow milk a total of 73 isolates of Pseudomonas spp. were identified as P. putida (34.25%); P. fragi (13.70%); P. lundensis (9.59%) and Pseudomonas spp. (42.47%). Proteolytic activity determined at a temperature of 7 °C was positive from (n = 20) selected isolates of Pseudomonas spp. (60%) isolates, at temperature 25 °C was positively detected (85%). Lipolytic activity determined at a temperature of 7 °C was confirmed in (35%) isolates, at a temperature of 25 °C it was confirmed in (70%) isolates. Pyoverdine pigment production was detected in (65%) isolates. The results reveal the enzymatic activity of Pseudomonas spp. present in raw caw milk and its spoilage potential at different temperatures in relation to pigment production.



Morphological and morphometric assessment of the choroid in dogs diagnosed with retinal atrophy (RA) with symptoms of progressive retinal atrophy, using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT)
Prof. dr hab. Balicki, DVM Zwolska, DVM, PhD Balicka, DVM Kuduk,

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The aim of the study was to use the SD-OCT technique to determine the thickness of choroidal layers in mixed breed dogs suffering from retinal atrophy (RA) showing symptoms of progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), and to compare the same to age-matched healthy dogs (Control). The study was performed on 50 dogs divided into two groups: 25 dogs diagnosed with retinal atrophy (RA) with PRA symptoms aged 1.5-14 years and 25 healthy dogs aged 2-12 years. The dogs were examined using slit-lamp biomicroscopy, tonometry, ophthalmoscopy, fundus camera and SD-OCT (Topcon 3D OCT 2000). Measurements of the choroidal layers: RPE-Bruch membrane-choriocapillaris complex (RPE-BmCc) with tapetum lucidum in tapetal fundus, medium-sized vessel layer, (MSVL), large vessel layer with lamina suprachoroidea and (LVLS) whole choroidal thickness (WCT) were taken manually with the use of the caliper function integrated with the SD-OCT software. They were performed dorsally (D), ventrally (V) at the distance 5000-6000 μm, temporally (T), and nasally (N) at the distance 4000-7000 μm from the optic disc with enhanced depth scans. The measurements were conducted temporally and nasally both in the tapetal (TempT, Nast) and nontapetal (TempNT, NasNT) fundus. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistica 10 software (Mann Whitney U Test). In all dogs affected by retinal atrophy (RA) with PRA symptoms, a statistically significant (p≤0,05) thinning of MSVL was observed in all the measured regions. Statistically significant thinning of LVLS and WCT was found in all nontapetal areas (p≤0,05). RA in mixed breed dogs with PRA symptoms was associated with choroid disorders such as thinning of the large vessel layer and decreased whole choroidal thickness in the nontapetal fundus as well as the medium vessel layer in all fundus regions.



Application of thermography in the assessment of physical effort on body surface temperature distribution in racing horses
Dr Dudek, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Soroko, DVM Śniegucka, Dr Dobrowolski,

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of thermography in assessing the impact of regular physical effort on changes in the body surface temperature of the upper body parts of young racehorses. The study involved monitoring 33 racehorses aged 3 years in 3 imaging sessions over a period of 3 months. Temperature measurements of the neck and upper part of the forelimbs and hindlimbs from both sides were taken just before and after training. Three regions of interest (ROIs) located at the base of the neck, elbow and quarter on both sides of the body were analysed. Before physical effort, the average temperatures in all ROIs did not differ significantly between the right and left side of the body. After physical effort average surface temperatures of the left side of the elbow and quarter were significantly higher compared to the opposite side and the temperature at the base of the neck was higher on the right side in comparison to the left side (p<0.001). Body surface temperatures of all ROIs after physical effort significantly (p≤0.001) increased, with the greatest increase observed in the elbow (4.7ºC) and the lowest in the base of the neck (3ºC). All regions demonstrated a positive correlation between average surface temperatures on the left and right side of the body, before and after training. There was a strong positive correlation between the average temperatures in the analyzed ROIs after physical effort with the strongest correlation between the elbow and quarter (r = 0.773) and the weakest between the quarter and base of the neck (r = 0.474). In conclusion, our study revealed that thermography remains a feasible diagnostic modality for identifying changes in upper parts of the body in response to physical effort and can therefore provide valuable insights into the assimilation of training regimes by the equine physiology.



The Effect of Repeated Semen Ejaculation on Sperm Quality and Selected Biochemical Markers of Canine Semen
dr hab Strzeżek, BEng, PhD, DSc, Assoc. Prof. Lecewicz, M.Sc. Orzeł, M.Sc. Siemieńczuk,

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality parameters and selected biochemical markers of canine semen sampled at 24-h intervals over a period of 5 days, preceded by 6 months of sexual abstinence. Full ejaculates were obtained from 6 dogs. Ejaculate volume and total sperm counts in the ejaculate decreased gradually on successive sampling days. The percentage of total motile spermatozoa (TMOT), percentage of progressively motile spermatozoa (PMOT), sperm plasma membrane integrity (SPMI), and sperm mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) increased on successive days of sampling. In addition, ATP content increased in spermatozoa. Total protein content (TPC) and the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AAT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), and acid phosphatase (AcP) decreased in seminal plasma. Repeated ejaculation over a period of 5 days induced changes in the qualitative and quantitative parameters of canine semen. A decrease in the values of some biochemical markers of semen, secreted by the epididymis and the prostate gland, could point to disturbances in the secretory activity of these organs. Canine semen sampled after prolonged sexual abstinence is generally characterized by less desirable quality parameters, and this observation should be taken into consideration when semen is collected for artificial insemination or preservation. Semen quality can be significantly improved by repeating the sampling procedure after 24 hours. One the other hand, repeated sampling on successive days can significantly decrease total sperm counts in the ejaculate. As a result, a sufficient number of semen doses for artificial insemination may not be obtained from a single ejaculate. Keywords: dog, semen, sperm quality, seminal plasma, biochemical parameters



Neuro-protective and redox potential of troxerutin against cypermethrin-induced neurotoxicity and oxidative stress in mice
PhD Yousaf, PhD Rabbani, PhD Rehman, PhD Tahir, M.Phil Shehzad, M.Phil Farooq, PhD Masood, PhD Anjum, M.Phil Saeed, PhD Majeed, M.Phil Basharat,

The present study was designed to evaluate the protective efficacy of troxerutin against cypermethrin-induced behavioral defects, motor function abnormalities, and oxidative stress in mice. Twenty-four adult female albino mice were randomly divided into four equal groups. The first group served as control, the second group was treated with cypermethrin (20mg/kg b.w) intraperitoneally at day 21, and the remaining two groups were orally supplemented with TRX (150, 300 mg/kg b.w) for 20 days and with cypermethrin (20 mg/kg b.w) intraperitoneally at day 21. Behavior activities recorded after cypermethrin exposure showed significantly impaired motor function (p≤0.05) as evidenced by the beam balance and pole test. The cypermethrin was also found to cause significant memory dysfunction. Moreover, the oxidative stress in terms of increased tissue malondialdehyde level (p≤0.05) was recorded in the cypermethrin group. The antioxidant activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase were decreased (p≤0.05) after cypermethrin exposure. Troxerutin supplementation significantly improved the cypermethrin-induced motor impairment and memory dysfunction. The supplementation of troxerutin significantly restored the redox status. Troxerutin attenuates the neurotoxic and behavioral deficits caused by cypermethrin. Furthermore, troxerutin also provides significant protection against cypermethrin-induced oxidative stress by improving the oxidative stress markers.



Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Jujube Fruit (Ziziphus jujuba) Powder on Performance, Some Biochemical Parameters, and Egg Quality in Quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica)
Professor Simsek, Dr. EROGLU, Prof. Dr. Ciftcı, Dr. AKARSU, Dr. Hames, Dr. Mutlu, Dr. ARSLAN,

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This study aimed to evaluate the effects of different dietary supplementation levels with jujube fruit powder on the performance, biochemical parameters, and egg quality characteristics of laying quails. A total of 60 quails (45 days old) were randomly assigned to treatments with different levels of jujube fruit powder: a basal diet (control) and diets supplemented with 5 g/kg (T1), 10 g/kg (T2), with five replicates per treatment (20 quails/treatment and four quails/replicate). The differences between 1-15 and 16-30 days for feed intake (p<0.05), 1-60 days for egg production (p<0.05), 16-30 days for egg weight (p<0.05), and 1-15 and 1-60 days for feed conversion ratio were statistically significant. The highest values for egg width (p<0.01) and egg length (p<0.05) were found in the control group (25.87 and 33.55 mm), while lower values were observed in the T1 and T2 groups. There was no statistical difference between the groups in egg shape index, shell weight, shell ratio, and shell thickness (p>0.05). The yolk height (p<0.05) and yolk diameter (p<0.01) were statistically significant. The differences between the groups for all serum biochemical parameters were insignificant (p>0.05). According to the results of this study, jujube fruit, a rich energy source, can be used as an alternative supplement in poultry diets with positive effects on egg production and feed conversion ratio.



Campylobacter jejuni and C. fetus subsp fetus. abortions rise in sheep farms of Kashmir India
PhD,post doc Qureshi, MVSC hafiz, PhD Gulzar, Phd kashoo, Phd Banday, PhD Farooq, PhD Bhat, PhD dar, PhD hussain, PhD Andrabi, Phd Hussain, PhD Badroo, MSc din,

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Campylobacter spp. are the leading causes of ovine abortions leading to severe economic losses and a source of bacterial food borne illness in humans, posing a major public health concern. This study reports an increase in Brucella negative abortions in sheep farms in Kashmir, India in the last few years. Screening of sheep farms was carried to rule out Campylobacter abortion. Three Government sheep breeding farms in the Kashmir valley and some other private flocks were screened for the presence of C. jejuni and C. fetus subsp. fetus. A total of 217 samples comprising of 200 swabs (rectal and vaginal swabs; 100 each) from clinically healthy animals, ten vaginal swabs from cases of abortion and seven abomasal contents of the aborted fetuses were collected from sheep breeding farm Khimber (District, Srinagar), sheep breeding farm Goabal, the Mountain Research Centre for sheep and goats (MRCSG, SKUAST-K) (District, Ganderbal) and from private sheep breeders were screened. In the present study a total of 15.2% of samples were positive for different Campylobacter spp. by PCR. C. jejuni and C. coli were detected individually or coexisting by PCR in the rectal swabs from all farms, while C. fetus subsp. fetus was detected only in the vaginal swabs from private sheep farms and abortion samples. Additionally, C. jejuni was also isolated from vaginal swabs. A total of 5, 20 and 18 samples were confirmed positive by PCR for C. fetus subsp. fetus, C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively. The Campylobacter isolates obtained in the present study were screened for flaA, cdtB, cadF, wlaN, pldA, virB and dnaJ virulence determinants. However, the isolates harboured flaA, cdtB and cadF virulence determinants only. The recovery of virulent Campylobacter isolates from healthy sheep fecal swabs in the present study may have longer human health implications. The presence of abortive strains of C. jejuni and C fetus subsp. fetus in sheep farms has long term economic implications in the Kashmir valley. This study emphasizes the need for efforts to be taken on farms to prevent animal infections and minimizing human exposure to these pathogens through proper hygiene and production practices as suggested by OIE.



Influence of humic substances on growth performance and blood serum parameters in fattening turkeys
associate profesor , MVD., PhD. Naď, DVM., PhD. Harčárová, DVM, PhD. Bujňák, DVM, PhD. Hreško Šamudovská, Associate Professor, DVM, PhD. Marcin, DVM, PhD. Mihok, Ing. Ph.D. Zábranský,

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The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of humic substances on performance and selected blood biochemical parameters in turkeys. A total of twenty 6-week-old turkey hybrids (Big 6) were divided into two groups. The first group of turkeys was fed the basal diet without any supplementation of humic substances as a control group. The second group was fed the basal diet supplemented with 5 g of humic substances per kg of diet. The study lasted 35 days, until the 11th week of age of the turkeys. The addition of humic substances had no effect on the live body weight, body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, or growth rate of turkeys. Similarly, the monitored blood biochemical parameters, except for the levels of P, Mg, and Na, were not significantly affected by the addition of humic substances. The addition of humic substances led to a significant decrease in the concentration of P (p˂0.05), Mg (p˂0.05), and Na (p˂0.01) in the blood serum of turkeys. It was concluded that the addition of humic substances may lead to a reduction of some mineral substances in the blood of animals, which may be due to their chelating effects. This may indicate a reduced availability of some biologically important minerals for the body, which could subsequently manifest itself in some health issues and a decrease in animal production. During the duration of our study, there were no signs of disturbance in the health of the animals. In view of the achieved results, further studies will be necessary to determine the appropriate concentration and duration of administration of the monitored preparation and to evaluate its influence on the availability of nutrients and feed conversion and its possible use as a safe non-antibiotic growth stimulator in turkey nutrition.



Honokiol Remodeled the Extracellular Matrix and Protected the Intestinal Tissue Against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury
phd Aşır, PhD Korak, Prof. Dr. Deveci, assistant professor Gökalp Özkorkmaz, associate professor Özay,

Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury has a major clinical challenge due to its high morbidity and mortality rates. This study aims to demonstrate the effect of Honokiol, a natural antioxidant compound, on intestinal IR injury utilizing histochemical and biochemical methods. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network construction and Honokiol-target network-reactome pathway analysis were performed using Cytoscape v3.10.1 software to validate inclusion of focused proteins in the study. 1 hour/2 hours of IR was applied on intestine (jejunum) tissues. Tissues were furtherly processed for biochemically total oxidant status (TOS) and antioxidant status (TAS) were measured. 5 mg/kg Honokiol treatment was administered to rats after ischemia protocol. Tissues were fixed into formaldehyde and embedded in paraffin protocol. Sections were stained with VEGF, ADAMTS15 and caspase-3 antibodies. Analysis of the signaling network revealed that honokiol exerts a significant influence on the proposed mechanisms associated with IR through the VEGF, ADAMTS-15, and caspase-3 network. IR increased the TOS level and decreased TAS level in ischemia and IR group and histopathologically damaged the intestine tissues and lead to epithelial degeneration, increased cell death, vascular dilatation and congestion. Honokiol treatment reduced the oxidant enzymes and favor the antioxidant system, and restored pathologies in IR+Honokiol group. Intestinal IR injury caused the increase of VEGF expression, ADAMTS15 and caspase-3 expression in ischemia and IR groups. Honokiol treatment after ischemia reduced the VEGF, ADAMTS15 and caspase-3 by restoring tissue integrity, preventing cell death and increasing cell matrix remodeling. The administration of Honokiol provided protection against intestinal IR injury by modulating apoptosis, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix remodeling processes through regulation of the VEGF, ADAMTS-15, and caspase-3 expression.